We are moving our triangle from the left to the right of the screen with a simple addition. But what about other transformations like rotations, skews or rescalings?

All the geometrical operations that we need can be done with some maths:

  • Rescaling our triangle is done with position *= factor;
  • Rotating our triangle is done with new_position = vec2(pos.x * cos(angle) - pos.y * sin(angle), pos.x * sin(angle) + pos.y * cos(angle));
  • Skewing our triangle is done with position.x += position.y * factor;

But what if we want to do a rotation, then a translation, then a rescale? Or a skew and a rotation? Even though it's possible to do this with maths, things become very complex to handle.

Instead, programers use matrices. A matrix is a two-dimensional table of numbers which can represent a geometrical transformation. In computer graphics, we use 4x4 matrices.

Let's get back to our moving triangle. We are going to change the vertex shader to use a matrix. Instead of adding the value of t to the coordinates, we are going to apply the matrix to them by multiplying it. This applies the transformation described by our matrix to the vertex's coordinates.

let vertex_shader_src = r#"
    #version 140

    in vec2 position;

    uniform mat4 matrix;

    void main() {
        gl_Position = matrix * vec4(position, 0.0, 1.0);

Note that it is important to write matrix * vertex and not vertex * matrix. Matrix operations produce different result depending on the order.

We also need to pass the matrix when calling the draw function:

let uniforms = uniform! {
    matrix: [
        [1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0],
        [0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0],
        [0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0],
        [ t , 0.0, 0.0, 1.0f32],

target.draw(&vertex_buffer, &indices, &program, &uniforms,

You should see exactly the same thing as previously, but what we now have is much more flexible. For example, if instead we want to rotate the triangle we can try this matrix instead:

let uniforms = uniform! {
    matrix: [
        [ t.cos(), t.sin(), 0.0, 0.0],
        [-t.sin(), t.cos(), 0.0, 0.0],
        [0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0],
        [0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0f32],

You can find the entire source code here.